Freitag, 17. April 2009

Ready to serve requests ...

In the Apache Sling project we have an interesting problem: Knowing when the application has finished its startup.

Coming from a background of a traditional application, you know when the system has finished its startup. For example, a servlet container knows it has finished the startup, when all web applications have been started.

In Apache Sling, the situation is a bit different: Apache Sling is an extensible system, where extensions may simply be added by adding more bundles. "Easy", you say, "just wait for all bundles to have been started and you know when the application is ready". True, but there is a catch.

To extend Apache Sling, you register services with the OSGi registry. "Still easy", you might say. Right, if the services are all started by bundle activators, we still can depend on having all bundles started for the system to be ready.

Again, this is only part of the story: Some services depend on other services. So the dependent services may only be started when the dependencies get resolved. This is where the trouble starts.

To help solve the dependency issues in a simple way, we employ OSGi Declarative Services. Great things to define components and services and have the dependency requirements being enforced and have dependency injection and configuration support and ... much more.

"What does it cost?", you say. Well, we buy this functionality with a lot of asynchronicity: When all bundles have been started, not all components may have been activated and not all services may have been registered.

Now, when is the application ready ? I cannot easily tell.

One approach could be to have a special service to watch out for a configurable list of services to be available. When all services are available and after the framework has started, the service signals Application Ready. As soon as one of the services goes away, the service might signal Application Not Ready.

The real question raising now is: What services are required for the application to be considered ready ? Can we come up with such a list ? How to we manage this list in light of more services to come, which might be considered vital ?

Any input would be appreciated ;-)

Dependency Injection in OSGi

The OSGi framework and its compendium services provide a whole lot of fun to build applications. Defining bundles is a cool stuff to cut the big job into pieces and enjoy the coolness of separation of concerns just like the old Romans said: Divide et Impera !

One interesting compendium specification is the Declarative Services Specification. This specification tries and IMHO succeeds very well to bring some of the cool stuff of Spring, namely Dependency Injection, into the OSGi world. Just like the application descriptors in Spring you have component descriptors in Declarative Services.

Using a component descriptor, you define the following properties of a component:


  • The name of the component and whether it is activated immediately or not

  • Whether the component is a service and the service interfaces to register the component with

  • Which other services are used by the component. These services may be injected (bound in OSGi speak) or may be looked up. There is also the notion of mandatory and optional services which provides the functionality to delay the component action until the mandatory service becomes available.

  • Configuration properties. Some properties may be injected by the descriptor itself. But at the same time, configuration properties may also be overwritten by configuration from the Configuration Admin Service. Thus the configuration of components may even be very dynamic.



The good news for the XML-haters like me: Over in the Apache Felix project we have Maven 2 plugin which takes annotations (JavaDoc or Java 5 Annotations) from your Component classes and builds the descriptors on your behalf.

So the next time, you are looking for dependency injection, you might want to consider OSGi and Declarative Services ;-)

Just for completeness, here is a list of other frameworks providing some sort of dependency injection:



In the end all work more or less the same, in that the provide some abstraction layer on top of the basic OSGi framework functionality: the Service Registry. This is really, the greatest things of all and IMHO shows the cleverness of the OSGi Framework specification: With just three basic layers (modularity, lifecycle and the service registry), you get the whole world in your hand to build flexible, modular and extensible applications.